Buying real estate is a large, long-term financial investment. When you have a credit of twenty years on the back, it is better to have thought through your choice. Unfortunately, the remorse of the purchaser is commonplace. To limit the risk of unpleasant surprises, the law requires very detailed pre-contractual information. From lead to the state of electricity through noise, your future home came under a magnifying glass.
A flood of information
When examining an asset, prospective buyers must review the thick Technical Diagnostic File (DDT). This control is carried out by a professional and must be provided in the event of sale and rental. On the program, it is first necessary to carry out the energy performance diagnosis, the famous DPE. It classifies housing under two labels, “energy” and “greenhouse gas”, ranging from the letter G for energy strainers to the letter A for the most efficient homes.
Since the building permit was issued before July 1997, it is also compulsory to have the presence of asbestos checked. Likewise, electrical and gas installations that are more than fifteen years old must be checked to ensure that they are safe. In addition, there is a state of natural and technological risks when the building is located in an area of seismic activity, liable to be flooded, to have a high level of radon … If the lessors are exempt from it, the sellers must finally have the presence or absence of termites assessed and the state of the non-collective sanitation installation for individual houses.
Beware of pollution from aerodromes
And since June 1, 2020, the list has grown via the new noise diagnosis, imposed by the Mobility Orientation Law of December 24, 2019. Future tenants and buyers must be informed of the situation of a located accommodation. in an area covered by an aerodrome noise exposure plan (PEB). This obligation applies to homes, but also to mixed-use buildings, as well as to building land.
In practice, the owner only has to enter the exact address of the property on the official PEB geoportal, on Geoportail.gouv.fr, to find out the zoning: A in red for a very loud noise exceeding Lden 70 ( sound level evaluated over 24 hours), B in orange for strong noise (outer limit between Lden 65 and Lden 62), C in green for moderate noise (between Lden 57 and Lden 55) and finally D in blue for weak noise (optional except for the ten main airports in France).
He then just has to fill out the required form (available on Service-public.fr) by checking the area concerned and mentioning the municipality in which the noise exposure plan is available. The document also includes the geoportal link to consult the PEB on the internet.
If the noise diagnosis is only informative, its absence can however be sanctioned by the authorities, while the buyer can go to court to request the cancellation of the sale or the reduction of the price.
- The DPE: this energy performance report is in principle valid for ten years. But the law has just been toughened: the diagnoses made between 2013 and 2017 are valid until the end of 2022, while those made between 2018 and the end of 2021 will be valid until the end of 2024.
- The presence of asbestos: the diagnosis must be renewed before the sale if it was made before April 2013. After this date, its renewal is recommended in the event of renovation work.
- Electrical and gas installation more than 15 years old: the diagnosis is valid for three years.
- The state of natural and technological risks: it must have been done less than 6 months before the sale or rental.
- Termites: again, it must be less than 6 months before the sale.
- The condition of the sanitation installation: it must have been done in the three years preceding the sale.
- Noise: it has an unlimited period of validity since it depends on the noise exposure plan.