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Ephemeris of December 11: What happened in the world on a day like today?

On December 11, 1994, the First Summit of the Americas in Miami closed with a declaration of principles and an action plan to fight corruption, eradicate poverty, and preserve the environment.


1813.- By the treaty of Valençay, Napoleon reinstates Ferdinand VII, his prisoner, as King of Spain.

1829.- Fernando VII contracts his fourth marriage with his niece María Cristina de Borbónmother of the future Queen Elizabeth II.

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1844.- Rafael Carrera begins his presidential term in Guatemala.

1868.- The Paraguayan forces defeat the Brazilians in the Battle of Abahyduring the war of the Triple Alliance.

1879.- The Constituent Assembly of Guatemala proclaims a new Constitutionof a liberal nature.

1881.- Electric lighting is installed in the main streets of Mexico City.

1917.- The Regional Parliament of Lithuania declares its independence from Russia.

1936.- George VI of England ascends to the throne, after the abdication of his brother Edward VIII.

1941.- Second World War: Germany and Italy declare war on the US, four days after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.


1946.- Unicef ​​is foundedthe Children’s agency that provides humanitarian aid to children in developing countries.

1972.- Astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt step on lunar soil in the Apollo 17 mission, the last with an American moon landing so far. That day they undertook a first walk of the three they did.

1981.- The Argentine General Leopoldo Galtieri replaces General Roberto Viola as president of the nation.

1991.- The EC reaches in Maastricht (Holland) an agreement on the EU Treaty that provides for the economic and monetary uniona, social cohesion and a foreign policy with exceptions for Great Britain.

1994.- The First Summit of the Americas closes in Miamiwith a declaration of principles and an action plan to fight corruption, poverty and preserve the environment.

1997.- The Kyoto protocol is approved on climate change, which did not enter into force until February 16, 2005.

1999.- The Helsinki (Finland) summit concludes with agreements to open a process of enlargement of the EU to other countries and the creation of a military corps for quick interventions.

2001.- China joins the World Trade Organization (WTO).

2004.- The doctors who treated Viktor Yuschenko in Viennaopposition candidate for the Presidency of Ukraine, confirm that he was poisoned with dioxin.

2007.- The former Peruvian president Alberto Fujimori, sentenced to six years in prison for illegal trespassing.

2008.- The FBI arrests the financier Bernard Madoffof course pyramid fraud of 30,000 million dollars.

– Google releases the first stable version of Google Chrome for the Windows operating system.

2013.- The Mexican Senate modifies three articles of the Constitutiona historic energy reform that allows opening up to private capital.

2018.- Five people die during a shooting at a Christmas market in Strasbourg (France), made by members of the Islamic State.

2019.- They discover in Indonesia a rock painting of a hunting scene, the oldest in the world cknown so far, with at least 44,000 years old.

2020.- IBEC scientists discover a mechanism for drug entry into the brain, which will facilitate the administration of these in a safer and more efficient way.

– Singapore bank DBS announces the creation of a cryptocurrency market and becomes the first commercial bank in the world to do so.

2020.- Women ex-combatants of the FARC open in Medellín (Colombia) the first market with products manufactured by demobilized of the guerrilla in different zones of the country.


1810.- Alfred de Musset, French writer and playwright.

1843.-Robert Koch, German physician and bacteriologist.

1890.- Carlos Gardel, tango singer.

1911.- Naguib Mahfouz, Egyptian writer, Nobel Prize 1988.

1912.- Carlo Ponti, Italian film producer.

1918.- Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Russian writer, Nobel Prize 1970.

1928.- Tomás Gutiérrez Alea, Cuban filmmaker.

1930.- Jean-Louis TrintignantFrench actor.

1943.-John Forbes Kerry, US Vice President.

1950.- Cristina Onassisdaughter of Aristotle Onassis.


1474.- Henry IVKing of Castilla y León.

1929.- Efren RebolledoMexican poet.

1959.- Felipe SassonePeruvian writer.

1964.- Sam CookeAmerican soul singer.

1994.- Yao Yilinhistorical leader of the Chinese Communist Party.

1999.- Franjo TudjmanCroatia’s first head of state.

2016.- Sadiq Jalal al-AzmSyrian philosopher.

2019.- David BellamyBritish naturalist and presenter.

2020.-Kim Ki-Duk, South Korean film director.

2021.- Manolo SantanaSpanish tennis player.

Source: Elcomercio

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