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Today’s ephemeris, June 13: What happened in the world on a day like today?

On June 13, but in 1994, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela sign the free trade agreement of the Group of Three (G3), which affects a market of 145 million inhabitants. The treaty ends twelve years later, when on May 21, 2006, the then Venezuelan president, Hugo Chavezconfirms his country’s exit from the group, of which it had been a member since 1989, as a measure “to safeguard national interests and support entry into Mercosur.”


1525.- The religious reformer Martin Luther he marries the nun Katharina von Bora.

1611.- German astronomer David Fabricius publishes his work “De Maculis in Sole Observatis”first book about spots on the sun.

1886.- A devastating fire destroys much of the city of vancouverin British Columbia (Canada).

1920.- A bomb explodes in the National Theater of Havanaduring a performance of the opera “Aida”, by Verdi, performed by the tenor Enrico Caruso.

1944.- Launch over London of the V-1 bomb Germany, the first guided missile to be used in war.

1953.- The general Gustavo Rojas Pinilla gives a military coup in Colombia and assumes the presidency of the country.

1964.- Launched in Kiel (FRG) the “Otto Hahn”, Europe’s first nuclear-powered ship.

1994.- XXX Summit of the OAU in Tunis, with the official participation of South Africa after joining the organization after 30 years of exclusion due to the policy of racial segregation.

nineteen ninety six.- The Parliament of Belgium eliminates the death penalty.

2000.- The Turk ali agcaauthor of the attack against John Paul II, leaves Arcona prison to be extradited to Turkey, after being pardoned by the Italian president.

2001.- The Brazilian writer Nelida Pinon wins the Jorge Isaacs Prize for Ibero-American narrative.

2002.- The interim president of Afghanistan, Hamid Karzayis elected head of the transitional Afghan Government by the great Afghan Assembly, the “Loya Yirga”.

2005.- american singer Michael Jackson He is declared innocent of the ten charges of which he was accused, including four of sexual abuse of a minor.

2007.- Simon Peres he is elected the ninth president of Israel by the Parliament of that country.

2010.- The Workers’ Party ratifies the candidacy of Dilma Rousseff for the October presidential elections in Brazil.

2012.- The International Red Cross wins the Prince of Asturias Award for Cooperation.

2013.- The former Argentine president Carlos Meme He is sentenced to seven years in prison for an aggravated crime of arms smuggling to Croatia and Ecuador between 1991 and 1995.

2019.- UK signs extradition order for WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange to the US, at the expense of what a court says.

– The Polish city of Gdańsk is awarded the Princess of Asturias Award for Concord 2019.

2021.- An amalgamation of eight political parties of all ideologies seizes the Israeli Government from Benjamin Netanyahuwho had served as Prime Minister for the last twelve years.


1763.- José Bonifacio de Andrade y Silva“father” of the independence of Brazil.

1790.- Jose Antonio Paezchampion of the independence of Venezuela.

1874.- Leopoldo LugonesArgentine poet and essayist.

1888.- Fernando PessoaPortuguese writer.

1910.- Gonzalo Torrente BallesterSpanish writer.

1917.- Augusto Roa Bastoswriter of Paraguayan origin nationalized Spanish.

1923.- Antonio PereiraSpanish writer.

1928.- John Forbes NashAmerican economist, Nobel Prize in 1994.

1935.- Christo Javacheff “Christo”Bulgarian multidisciplinary artist.

1943.- Malcolm McDowell (Malcolm Taylor), British actor.

1944.- Ban Ki MoonKorean, former Secretary General of the United Nations.

1946.- Montserrat Roig TorrensSpanish writer and journalist.

– Cristina HoyosSpanish dancer and choreographer.

1963.- Oblivion Gara“Alaska”, Spanish singer of Mexican origin.


1901.- Leopoldo Alas, “Clarín”, Spanish writer.

1931.- Santiago RusiñolSpanish painter and sculptor.

1982.- Khaled ben Abdel AzisKing of Saudi Arabia.

2005.- Álvaro Cunhal, historical leader of the Portuguese Communist Party.

– Eugene de Andrade, Portuguese poet.

2012.- Carlos Cobos, Mexican actor.

-William KnowlesNobel Prize winner in American chemistry.

2018.- Miguel Mejides, Cuban writer.

– D.J. FontanaAmerican musician.

2019.- Edith GonzálezMexican actress.

2020.- Jean RaspailFrench writer.

2021.- Ned BeattyAmerican actor.

Source: Elcomercio

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